Here is the information you typically need in order to cite the following types of sources. We also have some tips to help you decipher citations so that you can figure out the type of information source being cited. This can help you locate useful sources that you might find in bibliographies or lists of references in your reading.
Levitt Steven D. and Stephen J. Dubner. Freakonomics: a rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. New York : William Morrow, 2005.
|Title||Freakonomics: a rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything|
|Author(s)||Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner|
|Place of publication||New York|
Clues that this is a book:
- Contains only one title: Freakonomics: a rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything
- Includes a place of publication: New York
- Includes the name of a publishing company: William Morrow
- Might or might not include page numbers.
To find a specific book, you can search the Library Catalog by author or title.
Journal Article (print)
Empirical assessment of expertise. Weiss, David J.; Shanteau, James; HumanFactors, Vol 45(1), Spr, 2003. pp. 104-116.
|Article Title||Empirical assessment of expertise.|
|Author(s)||Weiss, David J.; Shanteau, James|
|Journal Title (title of the journal or magazine in which the article appears)||Human Factors|
|Journal volume and issue||Volume 45 Issue 1|
|Date of the Article||Spring 2003|
|Page numbers for the article||104-116|
Clues that this is a print article:
- Contains the title of the article, sometimes in quotation marks: "Empirical assessment of expertise"
- Contains another title, the title of the journal, newspaper, or magazine in which the article appears, often underlined or in italics: Human Factors
- Contains a volume and, sometimes, an issue number: 45. 1, or sometimes 45(1)
- The date is sometimes a year, sometimes month and year, sometimes season (example: Spring) and year.
If you have a citation to a specific article that you are interested in finding, you can search the Library Catalog or the Electronic Journals List for the title of the journal.
Computational intelligence techniques for a smart electric grid of the future
Zhenhua Jiang. Advances in Neural Networks. Proceedings 6th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2009, p 1191-1201, 2009
|Paper Title||Computational Intelligence Techniques for a Smart Electric Grid of the Future|
|Conference Title||Advances in Neural Networks: Proceedings 6th International Symposium on Neural Networks|
Clues that this is a conference paper:
- Title includes words "Proceedings" or "Symposium" or "Conference" or "Congress" or "Workshop"
- Date is a year
To find a specific conference proceeding (the proceeding is the collection of all the papers presented at the conference) search the Library Catalog for the name of the conference.
Bick, Julie. "The Long (and Sometimes Expensive) Road to the SAT." New York Times 28 May 2006, Section 3 p6.
|Article Title||The Long (and Sometimes Expensive) Road to the SAT|
|Newspaper title||New York Times|
|Date||May 28, 2006|
|Edition or Section||3|
Clues that this is a newspaper article:
- Like journal articles, it contains the title of the article (often in quotation marks) and the title of the publication
- Unlike journal articles, the date includes the month and day in addition to the year
- Some include section numbers: Section 3
- Some include section numbers as part of the page numbers (e.g. A6, B4)
If you have a citation to a specific newspaper article that you are interested in finding, you can search the Library Catalog or the Electronic Journals List for the title of the journal.
Household Horror: Domestic Masculinity in Poe's 'The Black Cat' By: Bliss, Ann V.; Explicator, 2009 Winter; 67 (2): 96-99.
Household Horror: Domestic Masculinity in Poe's 'The Black Cat'
|Author(s)||Bliss, Ann V.|
|Journal volume and issue||Volume 67 Issue 2|
|Page numbers for the article||96-99|
|Database where you found the full-text of the article||MLA Bibliography|
|Database platform||EBSCO Host|
|Database provider (library or other group which provided access to the database)||Georgia Tech Library|
|Web address of the database||http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/|
Clues that this is an online article:
- Includes the elements of an article citation, such as two titles, volume/issue numbers, and page numbers
- Includes the name of the article database in which the article was found: MLA Bibligraphy
- Contains a URL to the article database in which the article was found: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/
- Includes a date of access
Like print articles, you can search the Library Catalog or the Electronic Journals List for the title of the journal, newspaper, or magazine to see if we have access to the publication here at the library.
(all of the elements might not be available for each web page)
NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/index.php. 2009. Accessed November 19, 2009.
|Author||no author listed|
|Title of web page||NationMaster|
|Web site host or publisher||NationMaster.com|
|Date of copyright or date page was updated||2009|
|Date you accessed the page|| November 19, 2009|
Clues that this is a web page:
- Often does not have individual authors
- Includes a URL to the site.
- Does not include the name of a library or library database
- Includes a date of access.
Thanks to Utah State for the permission to use and modify the "Elements of a Citation" and "Why You Should Cite Your Sources" material.
Print copies of journal articles:
Include the page extent of the whole article when writing your full citation, not just the pages you have referred to.
Full: O’Gorman, E. (1999). Detective fiction and historical narrative. Greece and Rome. 46, 19-26.
Brief: O’Gorman, 1999
If there are more than three authors, for the brief citation you can just state the first author, followed by et al.
Full: Christie, D., Cassidy, C., Skinner, D. Coutts, N., Sinclair, C. Rimpilainen, S., and Wilson, A. (2007). Building collaborative communities of enquiry in educational research. Educational Research and Evaluation, 13 (3), 263-278.
Brief: Christie et al., 2007
Print journals accessed online:
If you access a journal article online (e.g. through JSTOR), but it is also available in print, use the same format for citation as above.
If the journal is ONLY available online, you should include the URL. Note that online-only journal articles may not have page numbers:
Full: Farrell, L.G. (2013). Challenging assumptions about IT skills in higher education. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, 6. Available at http://www.aldinhe.ac.uk/ojs/index.php?journal=jldhe&page=article&op=view&path=173&path=138.