This brief study guide aims to help you to understand why you should include references to the information sources that you use to underpin your writing. It explains the main principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work.
Other useful guides: Effective note making, Avoiding plagiarism.
When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those of other writers, researchers or teachers. It is essential that you acknowledge your debt to the sources of data, research and ideas on which you have drawn by including references to, and full details of, these sources in your work. Referencing your work allows the reader:
- to distinguish your own ideas and findings from those you have drawn from the work of others;
- to follow up in more detail the ideas or facts that you have referred to.
Before you write
Whenever you read or research material for your writing, make sure that you include in your notes, or on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text that you read. These details should include:
- surname(s) and initial(s) of the author(s);
- the date of publication;
- the title of the text;
- if it is a paper, the title of the journal and volume number;
- if it is a chapter of an edited book, the book's title and editor(s)
the publisher and place of publication*;
- the first and last page numbers if it is a journal article or a chapter in an edited book.
For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference.
* Please note that the publisher of a book should not be confused with the printer. The publisher's name is normally on a book's main title page, and often on the book's spine too.
When to use references
Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own. As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph. Look at the ways in which your sources use references in their own work, and for further guidance consult the companion guide Avoiding Plagiarism.
There are many different referencing conventions in common use. Each department will have its own preferred format, and every journal or book editor has a set of 'house rules'. This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used formats, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes. Once you have understood the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department.
How to reference using the 'author, date' system
In the 'author, date' system (often referred to as the 'Harvard' system) very brief details of the source from which a discussion point or piece of factual information is drawn are included in the text. Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text. This allows the writer to fully acknowledge her/his sources, without significantly interrupting the flow of the writing.
1. Citing your source within the text
As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name(s) (surname only) of the author(s) and the date of the publication. This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text.
The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers (Lyon, 1992).
The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in 1992. An alternative format is shown in the example below.
Knapper and Cropley (1991: p. 44) believe that the willingness of adults to learn is affected by their attitudes, values and self-image and that their capacity to learn depends greatly on their study skills.
Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text (in this instance a book) and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made. You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work.
When a publication has several authors, it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. (an abbreviation of the Latin for 'and the others') although for works with just two authors both names may be given, as in the example above.
Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:
Figure 1: The continuum of influences on learning (from Knapper and Cropley, 1991: p. 43).
Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source:
Table 1: Type of work entered by humanities graduates (data from Lyon, 1992: Table 8.5).
You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation.
Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks (Barker, 1996).
If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below.
The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance (Maria Lorenzini, pers. comm.).
'Pers. comm.' stands for personal communication; no further information is usually required.
2. Reference lists/ bibliographies
When using the 'author, date' system, the brief references included in the text must be followed up with full publication details, usually as an alphabetical reference list or bibliography at the end of your piece of work. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles.
The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above.
Knapper, C.K. and Cropley, A. 1991: Lifelong Learning and Higher Education. London: Croom Helm.
The reference above includes:
- the surnames and forenames or initials of both the authors;
- the date of publication;
- the book title;
- the place of publication;
- the name of the publisher.
The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas. When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al.
Papers or articles within an edited book
A reference to a paper or article within an edited book should in addition include:
- the editor and the title of the book;
- the first and last page numbers of the article or paper.
Lyon, E.S. 1992: Humanities graduates in the labour market. In H. Eggins (ed.), Arts Graduates, their Skills and their Employment. London: The Falmer Press, pp. 123-143.
Journal articles must also include:
- the name and volume number of the journal;
- the first and last page numbers of the article.
The publisher and place of publication are not normally required for journals.
Pask, G. 1979: Styles and strategies of learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp. 128-148.
Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system. It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight.
Other types of publications
The three examples above cover the most common publication types. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts. The same general principles apply to the referencing of all published sources, but for specific conventions consult your departmental handbook or your tutor, or look at the more detailed reference books listed in the Further reading section of this guide.
Referencing web pages
The internet is increasingly used as a source of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources. Information on the internet changes rapidly and web pages move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet. When referencing web pages it is helpful to include details that will help other people check or follow up the information. A suggested format is to include the author of the information (this may be an individual, group or organisation), the date the page was put on the internet (most web pages have a date at the bottom of the page), the title, the http:// address, and the date you accessed the web page (in case the information has been subsequently modified). A format for referencing web pages is given below.
University of Leicester Standing Committee of Deans (6/8/2002) Internet code of practice and guide to legislation. Accessed 8/8/02
Full references to unpublished oral presentations, such as lectures, usually include the speaker's name, the date of the lecture, the name of the lecture or of the lecture series, and the location:
Barker, G. 1996 (7 October): The Archaeology of Europe, Lecture 1. University of Leicester.
Please note that in contrast to the format used for the published sources given in the first three examples above, the formatting of references for unpublished sources does not include italics, as there is no publication title to highlight.
If you look carefully at all the examples of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used. There are many other ways in which references can be formatted - look at the books and articles you read for other examples and at any guidelines in your course handbooks. The only rule governing formatting is the rule of consistency.
How to reference using footnotes or endnotes
Some academic disciplines prefer to use footnotes (notes at the foot of the page) or endnotes (notes at the end of the work) to reference their writing. Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its purpose - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing - is the same.
Footnote or endnote markers, usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing (superscript), are placed at the appropriate point in the text. This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above.
Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate.¹ This view has been supported by an early study that demonstrated that graduates employed in the industrial and commercial sectors were as likely to have lower second and third class degrees as firsts and upper seconds.²
Full details of the reference are then given at the bottom of the relevant page or, if endnotes are preferred, in numerical order at the end of the writing. Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system.
1. Moore, K. 1992: National Westminster Bank plc. In H. Eggins (ed.), Arts Graduates, their Skills and their Employment. London: The Falmer Press, pp. 24-26.
2. Kelsall, R.K., Poole, A. and Kuhn, A. 1970: Six Years After. Sheffield: Higher Education Research Unit, Sheffield University,
NB. The reference to 'p.40' at the end of note 2 above implies that the specific point referred to is to be found on page 40 of the book referenced.
If the same source needs to be referred to several times, on second or subsequent occasions, a shortened reference may be used.
Studies of women's employment patterns have demonstrated the relationship between marital status and employment sector. ³
3. Kelsall et al. 1970 (as n.2 above).
In this example, the footnote refers the reader to the full reference to be found in footnote 2.
In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text. If you are unsure about how to use footnotes or endnotes in your work, consult your departmental guidelines or personal tutor.
If you are studying with the School of Law, you are required to follow the conventions of OSCOLA (The Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities). Full details of how to use this system are provided by the School. Copies of the system are also made available on Blackboard.
Whichever referencing system you use, you should check carefully to make sure that:
- you have included in your reference list/bibliography, footnotes or endnotes full details of all the sources referred to in your text;
- you have used punctuation and text formatting, such as italics, capitals, and bold text, in a consistent manner in your reference lists or footnotes.
More detailed discussion of referencing conventions is to be found in the following publications:
- Berry, R. 2004: The Research Project: How to Write It. London and New York: Routledge.
- Gash, S. 1999: Effective Literature Searching for Students (second edition). Aldershot: Gower.
- Gibaldi, J. 2004: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (sixth edition). New York: The Modern Language Association of America.
- Watson, G. 1987: Writing a Thesis: a Guide to Long Essays and Dissertations. London: Longman.
There are also software programs, for example, Endnote and Refworks that are designed to manage references. They include the facility to incorporate 'author, date' insertions within your text, and to format reference lists automatically.
Article in an encyclopedia with an authorPlease note that all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short, single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you.
Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put a hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, but indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2″ (1.25 cm) from the left margin.
In your Bibliography, Works Cited, or References page, you must include all of the above MLA parenthetical citation.
When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.
Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook.
1. Book with one author or editor:
Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist.
Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005.
Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History. New York: Schocken, 2002.
Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal
and Still Killing Us. N.p.: Rodale, 2003.
N.p. = No place of publication indicated.
Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from
4000 BC to the Present. Vercelli: White Star, 2004.
Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. New York:
Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie & Video Guide 2002 Edition. New York: New American, 2001.
Meidenbauer, Jörg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times.
Lisse: Rebo, 2004.
Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel. Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001.
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Scholastic, 1999.
—. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.
Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of
Paul O’Neill. New York: Simon, 2004.
If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.
Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.
(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses)
Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses. New York: Norton, 1999.
(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)
Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion. New York: Oxford UP, 1986.
(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred)
Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred. London: Harper, 1994.
(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart)
Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart. New York: Norton, 1995.
(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars)
Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars. New York: Norton, 1998.
2. Book with two authors or editors:
Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International
Environment of Business. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.
Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey
of Spirit. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.
Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal
Jubilee. New York: Rizzoli, 1999.
Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy
of Pierre Elliott Trudeau. Toronto: Random, 1998.
Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed.
2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005.
Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.
Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life. New York: Knopf, 2005.
Book prepared for publication by two editors:
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.
Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington
3. Book with three authors or editors:
Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special
Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.
Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College
Students. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005.
Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go:
Germany 1998. New York: St. Martin’s, 1998.
Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815.
9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.
Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance:
A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature. Vancouver: Greystone, 2002.
4. Book with more than three authors or editors:
You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae, meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named.
Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner.
Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York: Perigee, 2003.
Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York:
Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures.
Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.
Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian
Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005.
Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON:
Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary
Series for ESL. Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.
5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:
McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous:
A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions
from 1256 A.D. to the Present. New York: Barnes, 1994.
O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger:
True Stories of Trouble and Survival. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999.
Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa.
Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997.
Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by.
6. Book with no author or editor stated:
Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events
That Shaped Our Identity. Toronto: Key, 1999.
Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step. Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001.
The Movie Book. London: Phaidon, 1999.
With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913. Photographs of
Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.
7. Book with one author, translated by another:
Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber.
New York: Metropolitan, 1998.
8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:
Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man?
3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell.
New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.
Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival.
Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly.
San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22.
9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated:
“Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1997 ed.
“Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places. 2000 ed.
10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:
If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.
Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.
Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. D.L. Birchfield.
11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997.
11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:
“100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.
“Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6.
“E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4.
“McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.”
National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.
“Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star
25 Nov. 2004: A18.
“Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6.
12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:
Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive.
Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full.
Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005.
Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed.
Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you.
An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265.
The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end.
Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49.
Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London]
25 Jan. 2001: 36.
Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly
Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+.
Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+.
Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+.
Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News
15 Jan. 2006: A6.
Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88.
Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News
10 Oct. 2004: A1-2.
Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town & Country Travel
Fall 2004: 102-111.
Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.”
Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.
Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean
Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2.
Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18.
Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+.
Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud,
Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
or use “et al.”:
Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist
Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series):
Suggested citation example from SIRS:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK. (Boca Raton, FL:
Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.
Example in MLA style:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work. Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5.
Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20.
Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited.
Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005 <http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx>.
GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92.
IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 29 Oct. 2002: B7.
Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30.
15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated:
Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring. Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997.
16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:
Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software. Calgary, AB:
17. Book, movie or film review:
May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The
Dark Lady of DNA, by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.
Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase, by Karen Levine.
Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.
Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The
Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder.
Discover Nov. 2002: 77.
Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn
Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.
Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry
Finn, by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea,
Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within, comp.
and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998:
Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,
Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003, by Emma Gilligan.
New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33.
Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida, dir. Julie Taymor. National
Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.
Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated
Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20.
Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams, by
Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.
18. CD-ROM, DVD:
A Place in the Sun. Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001.
Encarta 2004 Reference Library. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003.
Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32. Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.
LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald
7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.
Links 2003: Championship Courses. CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002.
YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition, 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal:
19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:
Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times,
Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065
20. Definition from a dictionary:
When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.
“Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the
English Language. Canadian ed. 1988.
21. Film, Movie:
Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. You may add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl.
Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.
Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book
by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.
Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf.
Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.
Monster-in-Law. Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,
Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005.
Nanny McPhee. Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna
Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson,
Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005.
One Hour Photo. Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler,
and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002.
Titanic. Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth
Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.
The Tuxedo. Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder.
Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002.
22. Government publication:
Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication, underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date.
Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength:
Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and
Government Services Canada, 2000.
United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight –
Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human
Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures. Washington:
Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.
In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers.
United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cite simply as:
Cong. Rec. 31 July 1996: 104-193.
For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.
23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources:
a. Internet citation for an advertisement
b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated
c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia
d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated
e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal
f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.
g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserver, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail
h. Internet citation for an online government publication
i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor
j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site
k. Internet citation for a software download
l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor
m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another
Basic components of an Internet citation:
2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks.
3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project, underlined.
4) Editor of Project.
5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.
6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified.
7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.
8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site).
9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets.
Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons.
Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL.
If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities. Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock. Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.
a. Internet citation for an advertisement:
IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 <http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ibm.htm>.
TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 <http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm>.
b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:
Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online.
24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html>.
Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes. 10 Oct. 2005
Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada. Ottawa:
Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf>.
Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001.
National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips
Newsletter. Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.netmechanic.com/
If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.:
Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post. 8 May 2002.
SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004
Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in the source.
Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006.
Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.
Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. <http://www.proquestk12.com>.
c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:
Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005
“Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
9 Oct. 2005 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629>.
“Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica.
8 Oct. 2005 <http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567>.
d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:
“Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education.7 June 2003.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm>.
“Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com. 8 Dec. 2003.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html>.
e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003
f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.:
“Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online. 1993-2003.
Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 <http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/
Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts.
2000. 7 June 2003 <http://www.bluemountain.com/
Lee, Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com. Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com.
25 Apr. 2004 <http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710&RFID=814547>.
“Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State
Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://us.history.wisc.edu/
g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:
Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer.
E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003.
Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003.
“NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005
LII Team <[email protected]>.
PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith.
10 Oct. 2005.
h. Internet citation for an online government publication:
Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board
Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector.
6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/
United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights.
29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/
i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor:
Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses,
Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page. 10 Oct. 2005
Seaside Harry. “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online
posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298&highlight=>.
j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:
The MAD Scientist Network. 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U
School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. <http://www.madsci.org>.
O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews,
Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/
Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty
Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
13 Apr. 2006 <http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/>.
Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page. 23 Oct. 2000.
12 Apr. 2006 <http://www.btinternet.com/~dreklind/threetwo/Biograph.htm>.
Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch.
10 Apr. 2006 <http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html>.
Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?”
Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and
Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?
k. Internet citation for a software download:
It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor.
RAMeSize. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004
l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor:
Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of
Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP,
1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://showcase.netins.net/
m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another:
Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion. Trans. and ed.
Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/
Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006
Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006.
Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006.
Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.
Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.
26. Letter, editorial:
Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4.
Letter to the Editor:
Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo
News 23 Jan. 2005: I5.
Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter.
New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.
Reply to a letter to the Editor:
Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1.
A letter you received from John Smith:
Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005.
Published letter in a collection:
Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885.
Letter 850318 of Mark Twain. Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005
27. Map or Chart:
Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.
2004 Andex Chart. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004.
Canada. Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003.
“Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico. Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005.
28. Musical composition:
1) Name of composer.
2) Title of ballet, music piece or opera, underlined,
3) Form, number and key not underlined.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Für Elise.
Strauss, Richard. Träumerei, op. 9, no. 4.
Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underlined title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication.
Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1. New York: Fischer, 1918.
Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene. 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950.
Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye. London: Paxton, 1953.
Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65. 1819. London: Harris, 1933.
29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.
Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family. 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,
Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss. 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse
The Great Sphinx. [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.
Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque. 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris.
Raphael. The School of Athens. 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace,
Rude, François. La Marseillaise. 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underlined title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is housed, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number.
Abell, Sam. Japan. 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones.
By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999.
Carr, Emily. A Haida Village. [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,
Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection. By Jean Blodgett,
et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134.
Käsebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal. [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society,
Bath. A Basic History of Art. By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412.
Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda). [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum,
Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum. New York:
Abbeville, 1979. 31.
Michelangelo. David. 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great
Masters. By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York:
Park Lane, 1986. 226.
Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building. 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art.
By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice,
Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask. Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Náprstek
Museum, Prague. The World of Masks. By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dušan
Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207.
Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist. 1742-51. São Roque,
Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Cologne:
Könemann, 1998. 118.
Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date of photograph taken.
War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author.
22 Mar. 2003.
Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005.
1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s).
2) Title of patent.
3) Issuing country and patent number.
4) Date patent was issued.
Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachführung eines Stereo-Laparoskope
in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996.
“Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813.
27 Sept. 1988.
Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091.
26 Oct. 1999.
31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
Disney’s The Lion King. By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor.
Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre,
Toronto. 9 June 2002.
The Hobbit. By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael
Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
20 Apr. 2002.
The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James
Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of
Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.
Phantom of the Opera. By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart.
Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre,
Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998.
The Shanghai Acrobats. By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre,
Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005.
32. Radio, television:
1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate.
2) Title of program, underlined.
3) Title of series.
4) Name of network.
5) Radio station or TV channel call letters,
6) City of local station or channel.
7) Broadcast date.
The CFRB Morning Show. By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003.
Law and Order. Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network.
WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002.
“New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News. WBEN, Buffalo.
13 Nov. 2002.
“New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters,
New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
“The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner.
The Fifth Estate. CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.
“U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side.
WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape:
1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor.
2) Title of song (in quotation marks).
3) Title of recording (underlined).
4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.).
5) Edition, release, or version.
6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet.
Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life. Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by
The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC.
Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power
Plant Recording Studio, n.d.
Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power
Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997].
Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.”
McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back. LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and
Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by Ross Pallone.
34. Software on floppy disk
ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E. Diskette. Vers. 1.0.
35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights. Cassette
tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995.
Ginger. Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out. Vancouver:
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Dir. Alfonso Cuarón. Based on novel
by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson.
DVD. Warner, 2004.
Jane Austen’s Emma. Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York:
New Video Group, 1996.
Kicking & Screaming. Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick.
Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by
Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively,
and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.
Super Searching the Web. Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect,
The Wizard of Oz. Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum.
Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley,
Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins.
MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999.
36.Unpublished dissertations, theses
State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year.
Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.
Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
Underline title if dissertation is published:
Chan, Marjorie K.M. Fuzhou Phonology: A Non-Linear Analysis of Tone and Stress. Diss. U of
Gregory, T.R. The C-Value Enigma. PhD thesis. U. of Guelph, ON, 2002.
Recommended Reading – What is a Annotated Bibliography?
- Book with one author or editor
- Book with two authors or editors
- Book with three authors or editors
- Book with more than three authors or editors
- Book with compilers, or compilers and editors
- Book with no author or editor stated
- Book with one author, translated by another
- Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
- Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated
- Article in an encyclopedia with an author
- Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or or newspaper with no author stated
- Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
- Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series)
- Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated
- Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author
- Book, movie or film review
- CD-ROM, DVD
- Computer service, e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.
- Definition from a dictionary
- Film, movie
- Government publication
- Internet citations, or citing electronic sources
- Letter, editorial
- Map, chart
- Musical composition
- Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
- Performance (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
- Radio, Television
- Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape
- Software on floppy disk
- Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
- Unpublished dissertations, theses