Intro Paragraph For Cause And Effect Essay

How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay on any Topic

Published 5/9/2013

What is a Cause and Effect Essay?

A Cause and Effect essay essay is concerned with why things happen and what happens as a result (effects). Cause and effect is a common method of organizing and discussing ideas.

When writing your essay, remember your purpose. Decide if your are writing to persuade or inform. Focus on immediate and direct effects. Limit yourself to causes that are close in time and related, as opposed to remote and indirect causes, which occur later and are related indirectly.

Choosing a Topic for Cause and Effect Essay

In order to write a good Cause and Effect essay, you need to find a good topic for it, i.e. a topic that lets you easily demonstrate your writing skills and finally get a high grade without thinking too much.

Althrough choosing the essay topic for cause and effect essay type is not difficult, It’s important you choose the essay topic that is really important for you. Choosing the correct essay topic makes your essay more interesting and successful.

Here are some examples of pretty good Cause and Effect essay topics:

The Civil Rights Movement and the Effects

Causes and Effects of the Popularity of Fast Food Restaurants

Popularity of Sports in US Internet Influence on kids

Effects of Pollution

The Changes in the Ocean

Using the following links, you can find a lot of good topics for your Cause and Effect essay:

100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics

40 Good Cause and Effect Essay Topics – Students’ Choice

Cause Effect Essay Sample Topics

40 Writing Topics: Causes and Effects

Cause and Effect essay structure

Considering the right structure for your essay is one of the key points of success. Sticking to a recommended essay structure is the only way to properly outline and write it, paragraph by paragraph from the introduction to conclusion, without mistakes.

Depending on the kind of relation between causes and effects, your essay can be organized by one of the three patterns: "Multiple Causes, One Effect" pattern, "One Cause, Multiple Effects" pattern and "Causal Chain (Domino)" pattern

Multiple Causes One Effect pattern

This pattern deals with the situation when one effect is a result of multiple causes.

It contains five paragraphs: introduction, conclusion, and three paragraphs, each one describing one of the causes, leading to the effect.

One Cause Multiple Effects

This pattern should be used when one cause leads to multiple effects.

It contains five paragraphs: introduction, conclusion, and three paragraphs, each one describing one of the effects, the cause is leading to.

Causal Chain (Domino)

Sometimes a cause leads to a situation and that situation leads to another situation and so on.

This is called a causal chain or domino effect.

Causal chain pattern contains seven paragraphs: introduction, conclusion, and five paragraphs, each one describing one causal link.

After choosing an essay pattern, now all you need is to write your cause and effect essay, on any topic, according to your pattern’s structure. Also, be sure to read the A+ writing tips for a cause and effect essay on any topic below. Follow these instructions and you will write a high grading cause and effect essay.

Writing an A+ Cause and Effect Essay


In a Cause and Effect essay, the introduction is very important. It gives the reader his/her first impression of the text.

First of all, provide background information. Than state your essay’s thesis.

In "Multiple Causes, One Effect" pattern, enumerate the causes / causes groups leading to this effect. For example:

Hunger is a result of many reasons such as poverty, models of development and consumption, violence and militarism.

In "One Cause, Multiple Effects" pattern, enumerate the effects / effect groups of the cause. For example:

TV was also invented with positive thoughts in mind – there would be no national borders, education and communication would be worldwide, etc. However, we are now trying to overcome its physiological and psychological adverse effects on human beings.

In "Causal Chain (Domino)" pattern, state that the first cause in the chain leads to the final effect. For example:

Let’s see how the use of popular deodorants can bring the end of world.

Multiple Causes, One Effect – Cause Paragraph

Clearly state the cause

One of the main causes of hunger is poverty – lack of purchasing power and access to resources.

Support the cause by two supports – major and minor

Poverty is linked not only with poor national economic performance but also with an unequal distribution of income and a political structure that renders poor people powerless, whether in a democracy or a dictatorship.

While writing, these supporting ideas should be adequately explained and exemplified as well.

Globally, incomes and consumption differ starkly. Twenty percent of the world’s population – mostly in industrial countries – receives 85 percent of the world’s income and accounts for 80 percent of consumption, producing two-thirds of all greenhouse gases and 90 percent of ozone - depleting chlorofluorocarbons. This level of consumption is not sustainable at the global level.

Use appropriate transitions

To blend details smoothly, use the transitional words and phrases listed below:

because, due to, on cause is, another is, since, for, first, second

One Cause, Multiple Effects – Effect Paragraph

Clearly state the effect

One of the physiological effects of watching TV in excessive amounts is eye-strain.

Explain it in details

It is true that there are specifications for watching TV; TV should be 5 m. away from the eye, the room should be adequately lit, TV should be placed at the same height with our eyes, etc. However, these do not prevent our eyes from getting tired if we keep watching TV for a long time.

If it’s a group of effects consequently explain each effect:

Another effect is obesity, which is widely observed in people who like watching TV and eating snacks everyday (there is even a term “TV snacks” to refer to fast food that is suitable for eating in front of the TV). TV is such a powerful machine that people cannot get away from it – it is addictive.

Use appropriate transitions

To blend details smoothly, use the transitional words and phrases listed below:

consequently, as a result, thus, resulted in, one result is, another is, therefore

Causal Chain (Domino) – Causal Link Paragraph

Keep in mind the causal chain

deodorants contain chlorofluorocarbon gases ->
this gas destroys the ozone layer ->
unfiltered ultraviolet rays melt icebergs ->
the sea-level rises -> sea covers the land -> end of the world.

In each paragraph you deal with one cause / effect entry

Clearly state the cause and the effect

Chlorofluorocarbon gases cause the ozone layer to become thinner and finally disappear in patches

Explain the link in details

Years of deforestation and pollution have slowly but steadily damaged the atmosphere and depleted the ozone layer. Refrigerators and air conditioners, for example, emit harmful Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) which cause the depletion of the ozone layer, which results in Global warming.

Use appropriate transition terms

To blend details smoothly, use transitional terms, such as those listed below:

because, due to, on cause is, another is, since, for, first, second, consequently, as a result, thus, resulted in, one result is, another is, therefore


The conclusion of a cause and effect essay is one of the more important essay components. Without a solid ending, the earlier analysis could fall flat, no matter how well written the ideas were.

Restate (do not repeat) the thesis

Global warming is the result of human negligence. Years of deforestation and pollution have slowly but steadily damaged the atmosphere and depleted the ozone layer.

Consider the implications

Put yourself in your reader’s shoes and ask yourself what needs to be said to finish things up in a clear, concise way. What things need to be addressed in order to wrap things up?

You may explain how your conclusion should be practically used; express your hopes as you look to the future; issue a call for action, etc.:

To reduce Global warming we need to control the air pollution, the emission of the harmful gases and factory smoke. We need to respect and protect our environment so that we have safe and healthy air to breathe and we can live in a clean atmosphere.

Finalizing your Work

Pay attention that even though your essay is fully written, it still isn’t ready to submission.

There are some common and annoying mistakes which may significantly harm your grade. However, you can avoid those grade lowering mistakes by completing the following checklist:

  • Check spelling and grammar
  • Ensure that your essay is fully compliant with the required formatting standard
  • Properly organize all the citations and the References / Works Cited page
  • Ensure that your title page is done as required
  • Take a final look at your paper to be certain that everything is indeed fine

Edward Lorenz was a mathematician and meteorologist at MIT who created a complex mathematical model nearly 60 years ago to study weather and air patterns. His hope was that the research would lead to accurate long-term weather forecasts.

However, in 1961, the idea of a predictable universe fell into chaos. Lorenz entered some previously used variables into the model expecting the same results, but they were vastly different.

He traced the cause to a variable that had been rounded from .506127 to .506. This minute change had led to dramatic effects in the long-term weather outcomes.

Lorenz then concluded that the flap of a butterfly’s wings in South America could lead to a tornado in another part of the world.

This became known as the butterfly effect in chaos theory—the idea that small events can cause great effects. And this idea later inspired 2004’s The Butterfly Effect starring Ashton Kutcher, which really makes no sense. It has little to do with Lorenz’s theory but still grossed nearly $100 million because, boy, is Ashton dreamy. Sigh.

In its simplest form, Lorenz’s example represents cause and effect. But unlike Lorenz’s dramatic and complicated example and unlike the convoluted plot of Mr. Kutcher’s movie (sigh), the keys to writing a strong cause and effect essay are quite simple.

So let’s take a look at how to write a cause and effect essay and get an A.

What Is a Cause and Effect Essay?

What events and factors led to World War II? How has quickly advancing technology affected young people around the world?

What has caused such high levels of income inequality in America? What truly were the factors that caused Walter White to break bad? How has my Netflix subscription changed my life (hint: not for the better or more productive)?

Cause and effect essays are one of the most common essays you will encounter as a student. These essays are also some of the most interesting and enjoyable to write. You’d be surprised how much you can learn about a subject by just taking the time to think about how it happened or how it will affect the future.

So… how to write a cause and effect essay? There are two ways to approach this type of essay. You can choose an event and then write about what caused that event to occur. Or you can choose an event or phenomenon and delve into how it has affected the world.

Whichever way you approach the essay, it will be important to spend some time delving into the details related to your subject. Need some help finding a topic? Read 22 Cause and Effect Essay Topics to Write an Effective Essay.

Brainstorm and Narrow Your List

Many times, the cause and effect essay will focus on a subject that you have taken for granted, meaning you haven’t spent a lot of time thinking about the details related to it.

So first and foremost, you’ll want to find a block of time to sit down with a pen, some paper, and your thoughts. Brainstorm the causes and effects of your subject. Don’t worry about organization at this point. Just get down as many of your thoughts as possible.

In this first stage, expect to come up with many, many causes and effects. Don’t filter yourself. Just keep on listing ideas.

Once you have a nice list of ideas, try to narrow it down to the best five or six. Then, plug those ideas into a graphic organizer. You can find a plethora of options around the interwebs.

This one is called a fishbone diagram. It’s great for painting a clear path for your essay, especially when you’re learning how to write a cause and effect essay. But really, it’s great even if you’re a pro at this type of essay.

Write one of your ideas on each of the “ribs” of the diagram. Once you’ve done this, you can start to think deeper about each and do some research.

Use the lines that protrude from each rib to list the main pieces of supporting information for each cause or effect. If you can’t come up with at least three solid pieces of supporting information for a cause or effect, eliminate it.

Sticking with the weather pattern theme of the introduction, let’s say you’re writing a paper on the future effects of global warming on the planet.

It’s true, for example, that bananas may not survive in a future affected by climate change. But you’ll have to decide if there’s room for this fact in your paper alongside its other effects, such as rising sea levels, increasingly unpredictable storm surges, and wide-reaching drought.

Through this process, you should settle on the top reasons. The number of reasons you choose will depend on the assignment.

Perhaps the teacher wants a short essay focusing on the main cause. Or perhaps she wants a traditional five-paragraph essay, in which case three reasons would fit nicely into the three body paragraphs of your essay.

Once you figure out the causes, you’ll have the ingredients to create the most important sentence of your paper: THE THESIS (cue: thunderclap).

Develop Your Thesis

The thesis statement is the most important sentence in your entire essay because it connects with every other part. Think of it as the backbone: much like in the fishbone graphic organizer, each cause or effect will be attached to the thesis like a rib.

In this one sentence, you will state the main focus of your essay along with the top arguments that support it. Let’s go back to the global warming example for a moment.

Many students fall into the trap of writing a generic thesis:

Global warming will have many effects on our lives in the future.

Okay. That’s true. And that pretty much sums up the general focus of your essay. However, it doesn’t go far enough. Yes, it will have many effects, but your paper isn’t covering all of the many effects. Your paper is focusing on three of those effects, so mention them in the thesis.

Moreover, this thesis says that “our lives” will be affected in the future. Everyone’s lives or a specific group of people? (There’s another reason to avoid the first-person pronoun too. Read Why Third-Person Writing Is Critical to a Great Essay.)

With these in mind, try this thesis on for size:

Global warming will cause rising sea levels, increasingly unpredictable storm surges, and wide-reaching droughts that will disproportionately affect impoverished people around the world.

Now that’s more like it. Though I’m still worried about the bananas.

Once you get to the point where you have your three(ish) causes and you have built your thesis, you can start working on an outline for your cause and effect essay, which is a must if you want to get an A.

Structuring Your Cause and Effect Essay

As with any essay, structure can make or break your cause and effect essay. What’s the best way to ensure that your writing flows well and logically progresses from beginning to end? Take the time before writing your first draft to develop an outline.

The five-paragraph essay outline really does work well for cause and effect essays.

As is indicated in the above outline, the first paragraph of your cause and effect essay is your chance to hook your reader. As I mentioned earlier, the subject of your paper is likely to be something that you and others have taken for granted.

So use the opening paragraph of your paper to help your reader see the subject in a new light, as you surely have seen it after developing your essay.

Moreover, the subject is likely to be something you find interesting if you chose to write about it. Try to channel this interest in the opening paragraph to motivate your reader to keep reading.

And don’t forget about your thesis. It’s best to put it at the end of your introduction paragraph as it will help to transition into the three body paragraphs. If you settled on three top causes or effects, then one body paragraph can be dedicated to each.

The last step is writing a killer conclusion.

How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay Conclusion

I find that the conclusion can be extra important in a cause and effect essay. This is especially true if you’re talking about potential future effects of a current trend or event, like we have been in our global warming example.

The conclusion paragraph gives you a chance to wrap up your arguments in a clear way. First, you should restate the thesis statement in one form or another in this paragraph. But then you should use this space to leave your reader with something to think about.

In the case of an essay on global warming, you may decide to use the last paragraph as a call to action, explaining to your readers what they should do to stop global warming and its most terrible effects from occurring.

That’s a Wrap

Good luck with your cause and effect essay! I hope the effect of this blog post on how to write a cause and effect essay is that you feel more comfortable tackling this essay. Remember to have fun with it!

If you still feel a bit lost, check out these cause and effect essay examples.

Moreover, I highly suggest that you send your first draft to the skilled editors at Kibin. They will provide expert guidance that will help you to write a cause and effect essay and get an A.

Psst... 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.


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